The Calvin College Alumni Choir is established to organize and promote choral singing of the highest caliber.

 Through rehearsal and performance the choir, in community, will cultivate and develop an awareness, understanding, and appreciation for the Christian faith, for choral music both sacred and secular, and for Calvin College.

 The Alumni Choir will achieve these purposes by sponsoring and participating in concerts, providing a ministry of music in church worship services, and by engaging in other performance opportunities.

Will You Join the Song? Become a patron of the Calvin College Alumni Choir.

Worship Services

If you would like to have the Calvin College Alumni Choir lead a worship service in your church, please e-mail: alumnichoir@calvin.edu

2018-2019 Season

Fall Concert

All That Hath Life and Breath

Saturday, November 10, 2018| 8:00 p.m.
Covenant Fine Arts Center Auditorium
Calvin College
3201 Burton St SE | Grand Rapids, MI 49546 [map]

The concert will be directed by Randy Van Wingerden. Admission is FREE, tickets are not required. A free-will offering will be taken.

Worship Services

The Alumni Choir will be participating in worship services as follows:

Sunday, January 20, 2019 | 5:00 p.m.
Ridgewood Christian Reformed Church
1571 Baldwin Street | Jenison, MI 49418 [map]

Sunday, January 27, 2019 | 9:30 a.m.
Eastern Avenue Christian Reformed Church
514 Eastern Ave. SE | Grand Rapids, MI 49503 [map]

Sunday, February 10, 2019 | 9:30 a.m.
Shawnee Park Christian Reformed Church
514 2255 Tecumseh SE | Grand Rapids, MI 49506 [map]

The worship services will be directed by Roy Hopp.

Spring Concert

Saturday, April 27, 2019 | 7:30 p.m.
Basilica of St. Adalbert
654 Davis Ave NW | Grand Rapids, MI 49504 [map]

The concert will be directed by Sean Ivory. Admission is FREE, tickets are not required. A free-will offering will be taken.

Conductor, Accompanist & Business Manager

Victoria Van Wingerden

Victoria Van Wingerden

Oratorio Society Administrative Director; Alumni Choir Business Manager
Full profile

Kenneth Bos, accompanist


Kenneth BosDr. Kenneth Bos is an active pianist, organist, and accompanist who has performed in concerts throughout the United States as well as in Europe, Asia, and the British Virgin Islands. He has accompanied the Calvin College Alumni Choir since 1980 and served for over twenty years as the accompanist for the Calvin College Oratorio Society. A graduate of Calvin College and the University of Michigan, he also received a doctor of musical arts in piano performance from Michigan State University. Bos is the full-time accompanist for the music department of Grand Rapids Community College and is organ fellow of the Grand Rapids Choir of Men and Boys. He is a member of the American Guild of Organists and currently serves as organist, choir director, and director of music at Calvin Christian Reformed Church in Grand Rapids. He is the principal keyboardist for the Baroque on Beaver Festival and accompanies regularly for Opera Grand Rapids and the Grand Rapids Symphony Chorus. Ken and his wife, Fay, have three married daughters and four wonderful grandchildren.


Explore Alumni Choir
History
Members
Patrons
Recordings

The Calvin College Alumni Choir was founded in 1977 by Helen Hoekema VanWyck, now the Director of Choral Activities at Trinity Christian College, and conducted by various members of the choir. In 1981, Anton Armstrong, current conductor of the St. Olaf Choir, became the choirs’ fourth conductor. During Dr. Armstrong’s tenure, the choir performed for the ACDA National Convention in Salt Lake City (1985). Dr. Charles Smith, Director of Choral Activities at Michigan State University (emeritus), was the choir’s fifth conductor. In 1998, Dr. Pearl Shangkuan became the choir’s sixth conductor and led the choir for twenty years. The choir has been accompanied since 1980 by Dr. Kenneth Bos. Guest directors have included such eminent composers and conductors as Sir David Willcocks, Semyon Bychkov, John Rutter, Moses Hogan, André Thomas, Joseph Flummerfelt, and Maria Guinand.

Members of the choir are admitted by audition. Spanning from the most recent graduating class to the 1970’s, the singers are all alumni of Calvin College and represent a variety of professions. In addition to its annual concerts, the Calvin College Alumni Choir participates in worship services at area churches and other community functions.

The choir has released several commercial recordings and commissioned new works, many of which have become staples in choral repertory sung around the world. The choir has performed with the Grand Rapids Symphony as the featured guest chorus in performances of the B Minor Mass and the Magnificat by Bach at the Grand Rapids Bach Festival. In 2010 the choir received third place in the American Prize competition that recognizes the very best in the performing arts in the United States. Most recently the choir performed at the prestigious Templeton Prize ceremony honoring Calvin graduate and former professor Dr. Alvin Plantinga.

Nationally recognized for its choral artistry, the Calvin College Alumni Choir has been invited multiple times to performances at conferences of the American Choral Directors Association (ACDA) at national, division and state levels. The choir has also performed for the National Association of Pastoral Musicians (NPM), and the American Guild of Organists (AGO). During Dr. Shangkuan’s 20 year tenure the choir toured Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Taiwan, the Netherlands, and most recently as the anchor choir for an international festival in France and Switzerland.

2018-2019

Soprano
Allie Buell Bosma '18
Debra Paxton Buursma '82
Elizabeth Plaisier Campbell '12
Cynthia Persenaire De Boer '83
Annelise Folkema '18
Erica Burrsma Klenz '18
Jenn Riemersma Ophoff '03
Jennifer Vander Woude Schroder '90
Anika Slauer '17
Laura Sterenberg '15
Carol Van Wyk
Kaylee Borst Vruwink '17
Amy Bardolph Worden '13
Abby Zwart '13

Alto
Rhonda Van Valkenburg Brink '80
Abby Brinks '17
Kathy DeMey
Katie Eiten '14
Kristi Ellens '18
Annette Kooy Goris '75
Rachael Hoekwater '18
Jane Jansma Hofstra '80
Janet Baum Klamer ex'76
Virginia Medema '96
Anna Lindholm Noa '18
Julia Pastoor '14
Cynthia Slager Vandenburg '76
Emily Westmaas '13

Tenor
J.R. De Groot '84
Greg Hofman '78
Steven Hofman '16
Henry Kingma '98
Joel Lautenbach '01
Matt Lesky '16
Stephen Mulder '10
Aaron Polet '16
Robert Storms '88
Justin Triemstra '18
Randall Van Wingerden '77
William Vis '78
Joel Westmaas

Bass
David Bardolph '80
Kenneth Bos '75
Kim DeStigter '77
Kurt Frisch
Jason Hanse
Roy Hopp '73
Chan Gyu Jang '15
Craig Klamer '78
Tim Lautenbach '04
Paul Mulder '82
Harry Plantinga '83
Ben Van Hof '99
Micah Van Rijs '18

The Calvin College Alumni Choir is a non-profit organization existing on the gifts of our supporters and patrons. If you would like to become a contributing patron of the Calvin College Alumni Choir and receive advance concert information, please e-mail alumnichoir@calvin.edu to be added to the mailing list.

With deep gratitude, the Alumni Choir thanks our 2017-2018 patrons for their generous support. 

Score Underwriter
Emily Brink

Technology Underwriter
Anonymous
   (in memory of Henrik Marius Liefbroer)

Masterwork
Elaine De Stigter
   (in memory of Mel De Stigter)
Jim & Melanie Pentecost
Rodger Rice
   (in memory of Ruth Rice)

Poly Choral
JR & Laura De Groot
Tom & Wendy Hofman
Jane Hofstra & Norm Browe
Phil & Marie Huizenga
Phil & Jenn Ophoff
Al & Ginny Vander Hart

Antiphonal
Anonymous
John & Judy Bielema
Mary & Gordon Buitendorp
Kim DeStigter & Patricia Gardner
Esther Drukker
Annette Goris
Jan Heerspink
Greg & Jude Hofman
Carl & Coni Huisman
Dr. & Mrs. Arthur Jongsma
Bob & Susanne Jordan
Bruce & June Klanderman
Dan & Helen Lautenbach
Joel Lautenbach & Dana Doll
Marilyn Lobbes
Perrin & Alanna Rynders
LeRoy & Anjean Stegink
Pat & Pete Tigchelaar

Harmony
Anonymous
Dr. Anton Armstrong
   (in honor of Kim DeStigter)
Marc & Claudia Beversluis
Jonathan & Grace Bradford
Don Dekker
   (in memory of Andrea Dekker)
Marjorie Hoogeboom
B.J. & Pat Huizenga
Cate & Sid Jansma
Andrea & Michael Le Roy
Andrew & Cathy Lee
Tim & Lindsey Lautenbach
Bob & Darlene Meyering
Stephen & Helen Mulder
Sheryl & Paul Mulder
Dave & Jan Musch
Neal & Kathleen Plantinga
Ruth Vis
Joel & Loralee Westmaas

Unison
Jean Andree
Anonymous
John & Judy Apol
Dave & Mary Bardolph
Elaine Bardolph
Henry & Ruth Baron
Helen Bonzelaar
Philip & Laura Boonstra
Gordon & Karen Bordewyk
Lawrence & Jeanne Borst
Chuck & Karen Bos
Fay & Kenneth Bos
Joan & Jack Bosscher
Stephen & Rhonda Brink
Rick & Chris Brinks
Randall & Debra Buursma
Bill & Annette Byl
   (in memory of Abby Byl)
Michael & Kathryn Cok Jim & Judy Czanko
   (in honor of Anton Armstrong)

Unison (continued)
Doug & Jan Daining
Dan & Lois Day
Cynthia De Boer
Mark & Julie De Koster
Kathleen De Mey
Norma de Waal Malefyt
Jan & Kent Druyvesteyn
Dave & Jan Dykgraaf
Katharine Eiten
Dorothy a& Roger Graham
Roger & Sue Griffioen
Bill & Marybeth Haverkamp
George & Audrey Hiskes
David & Susan Hoekema
Ron & Heidi Hofman
   (in memory of Rev. John Hofman)
Michael & Linda Hoisington
Kay Hoitenga
David & Lois Huisman
June Huissen
Cornie & Marcia Huizinga
Donald & Doris Koopman
Virginia La Grand
Ray & Beth Lantinga
Gordon & Carole Medema
Nancy & Don Melvin
Ryan & Janelle Musch
Ken & Kathy Olthoff
A.C. & Karen Ophoff
Henry & Sharon Ottens
Richard &d Carol Pennings
Ted & Carol Peters
Harry & Pam Plantinga
Robert & Sheryll Poel
Barbara J. Porter
Dr. Kenneth Post
Phil & Jan Quist
Rev. Len & Yvonne Riemersma
Helen Ruiter
Bill & Diane Ryckbost
Dennis & Kathy Sikkema
Larry & Jennifer Simon
   (in honor of Melissa Elliot)
Ross & Evelyn Smith
James & Dolly Strikwerda
Drs. Steven & Barbara Timmermans
Glenn & Nancy Triezenberg
William & Yvonne Van Ee
Mary Van Hof
Nancy Van Noord
Mary A. Van Valkenburg
Randy & Vicki Van Wingerden
Maria & James Vanden Bosch
Christina & Jonathan Vanden Bosch der Nederlanden
Anjean Vanden Bosch & Jon Overman
Cindy & Bob Vandenburg
Lorrie & Dave Vander Ark
Stuart & Nelleke Vander Heide
Ken & Sue Vander Lei
Anne Vander
Bill & Barb Vis
Gert Visser
Arlene Warners
John & Charlotte Witvliet
Nicholas & Claire Wolterstorff
Dan & Melanie Yff
Dianne & Duane Zandstra
Steve & Judy Zwart
Abby Zwart

Other Gifts
Stephen Barton
Daniel & Esther Bos
Rev. Randall & Kathryn Engle
Hank Fuhs
John & Bernadine Hedrick
Gertrude Huizenga
Lois Konyndyk
Janice Postma
Helen Vandenburg
Nancy Westra

Please call the Calvin Campus Store at 1-800-748-0122 for available recordings.



Sacred SpaceSacred Space (2010)

Pearl Shangkuan, conductor
Kenneth Bos, accompanist

Sacred Space is a 15-song disc containing songs from the choir's live concerts performed in 2006-2010. It includes spirituals arranged by Moses Hogan, gentle settings of prayers from Scandinavia, the majestic "Psalm 90" by Charles Ives and other audience favorites.

The Earth Adorned - Waldemar Ahlen
Ave Maris Stella - Mark Thomas
Veni Sancte Spiritus - Mozart
Day by Day - Bradley Ellingboe
How Lovely Is Your Dwelling-Place - Michael Bojesen
Psalm 90 - Charles Ives
Karin Boye’s Evening Prayer - Egil Hovland
Children of the Heavenly Father - Rene Clausen
When the Saints Go Marching In - John Rutter
How Lovely is Thy Dwelling Place - Johannes Brahms
Kyrie - Mozart
And I Saw a New Heaven - Edgar Bainton
Elijah Rock - Moses Hogan
Chichester Psalms - Leonard Bernstein
The Lord Bless You and Keep You - Peter Lutkin



You Shall Have a SongYou Shall Have a Song (2008)

Pearl Shangkuan, conductor
Kenneth Bos, accompanist

Let All Creation Praise - Stephen Paulus
Psalm 23 - Stephen Paulus
Psalm 92 - Stephen Paulus
I Will Be With You - Stephen Paulus
You Shall Have a Song - Stephen Paulus
Kyrie - Stephen Paulus
Gloria - Stephen Paulus
Agnus Dei - Stephen Paulus
God With Me - Stephen Paulus
We Gather Together - Stephen Paulus
Redeemer God - Stephen Paulus
Lord, Help Us Walk Your Servant Way - Stephen Paulus
Canticle of Simeon - Stephen Paulus



A New Heaven and a New EarthA New Heaven and a New Earth (2006)

Pearl Shangkuan, conductor
Kenneth Bos, accompanist

Uyai Mose - arr. Roger Wesby
Old One Hundredth - arr. R. Vaughan Williams
And I Saw a New Heaven - Edgar Bainton
Here from all Nations - arr. Roy Hopp
We Will Rejoice! - arr. Roy Hopp
Alleluia! Jesus is Risen - Richard Hillert
How Lovely is Thy Dwelling Place from The German Requiem - Johannes Brahms
Festival Concertato on Jerusalem the Golden - arr. Larry Visser
Arise, Shine - Donald Pearson
The Tree of Life - K. Lee Scott
E'en So, Lord Jesus, Quickly Come - Paul Manz
Go to the World - C.V.V. Stanford, Hal Hopson
"Allegro" from Concerto in G Minor - Karl Heinrich Graun



Hear our PrayerHear our Prayer (2004)

Pearl Shangkuan, conductor
Kenneth Bos, accompanist

Antiphon - Kenneth Jennings
The Call - Kenneth Jennings
Hear My Prayer - Moses Hogan
O God We Kneel Before Your Throne - Roy Hopp
Te Deum - Franz Joseph Haydn
"Credo" from Neusser Messe - Vic Nees
Nu zijt wellekome Jesu, lieve Heere - arr. Roy Hopp
Notre Père - Maurice Duruflé
Psalm 118 - Setting by Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck
Psalm 77 - Setting by Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck
Christus Paradox - Picardy, French carol, arr. Alfred V. Fedak
I Can Tell the World - Traditional spiritual, arr. Moses Hogan
The Lord Is My Shepherd - Joel Navarro
Nunc Dimittis - Robert Scholz



HymnaleHymnale (2002)

Pearl Shangkuan, conductor
Kenneth Bos, accompanist

The Church's One Foundation - Samuel S. Wesley, arr. John Ferguson
How Firm a Foundation - arr. Paul Louis Anderson
Abide With Me - William Monk, arr. Lucy Hirt
How Lovely, Lord, How Lovely - Hal Hopson, arr. Roy Hopp
How Can I Keep From Singing? - Robert Lowry, arr. Z. Randall Stroope
The King of Love My Shepherd Is - arr. Mack Wilberg
O God, Beyond All Praising - Gustav Holst, arr. Richard Proulx
Take My Life and Let It Be - Timothy Hoekman, arr. Roy Hopp
All Creatures of Our God and King - arr. Mark Hayes
Sing a New Song - Dan Schutte
Shepherd Me, O God - Marty Haugen
Jesu, Jesu, Fill Us With Your Love - arr. Cindy Johnston
Go, My Children, With My Blessing - arr. Walter L. Pelz
O God, Our Help in Ages Past - William Croft, arr. Carl Schalk
John the Revelator - arr. Paul Caldwell/Sean Ivory



Many Colors Paint the RainbowMany Colors Paint the Rainbow (2001)

Pearl Shangkuan, conductor
Kenneth Bos, accompanist

Praise Ye the Lord - Hugo Distler
"Sing to the Lord" from Three Meditations - Nöel Goemanne
Many Colors Paint the Rainbow - Roy Hopp
Sicut Cervus - Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Cantate Domino - Claudio Monteverdi
The Lord Is My Shepherd - Randall Thompson
At the River - Aaron Copland, arr. R. Wilding White
"Y'susum Midbar" from Zimrei Chayim - D. Zahavi, arr. Alice Parker
Daemon Irrepit Callidus - György Orbán
I'm Goin' to Sing - arr. Alice Parker/Robert Shaw
Eternal Light, Shine in My Heart - K. Lee Scott
My Shepherd Will Supply My Need - arr. Virgil Thomson
Give Me Jesus - arr. Moses Hogan
We Shall Walk Through the Valley - arr. Moses Hogan
Amazing Grace - arr. Alice Parker/Robert Shaw
Go Where I Send Thee - arr. Paul Caldwell/Sean Ivory



A Musical FeastA Musical Feast (1998)

A taste of live concerts 1990-1998

Charles K. Smith, conductor
Kenneth Bos, accompanist

Kyrie Eleison - Louis Vierne
O For a Closer Walk with God - Charles V. Stanford
Glory to Thee, My God This Night - Thomas Tallis, arr. Brown
Deep River - Rene' Clausen
Now Thank We All Our God - J. S. Bach
Three Motets - Maurice Durufle'
* Ubi Caritas
* Tota Pulcrus Es
* Tu Es Petrus
My Shepherd Will Supply My Need - Virgil Thompson
River in Judea - Jack Feldman, arr. John Leavitt
Kentucky Psalms - Alice Parker
* Zion
* Vergennes
* Washington
Chorus of Homage - Johannes Brahms
Obey the Spirit of the Lord - Robert DeCormier
Come to Me, My Love - Norma Della Joio
Lovliest of Trees - John Chorbajian
Long Time Ago - Aaron Copland
Heart, We Will Forget Him - James Mulholland
A Red, Red Rose - James Mulholland
Let My Fly! - Robert DeCormier



The Gift of ChristmasThe Gift of Christmas (1998)

A choral restrospective of live concerts 1990-1998

Charles K. Smith, conductor
Kenneth Bos, accompanist

Personent Hodie -arr. Lara Hoggard
O Magnum Mysterium (Gabrieli) - Giovanni Gabrieli
O Magnum Mysterium (Laurendsen) - Morten Lauridsen
Where Is the Newborn King? - Andreas Hammerschmidt
Gloria in Excelsis Deo - Tomas Luis de Victoria
Glory Be to God - Sergei Rachmaninoff
Carols and Lullabies from the Southwest - Conrad Susa
Oh, mi Belen!
El Desembre Congelat
A la Nanita Nana
Campana Sobre Campana
Chiquirriquitin
El Rorro
He Is Born - arr. Roger Wagner
A Babe Is Born - William Mathias
Estampie Natalis - Vaclav Nellybel
What Sweeter Music - Michael Fink
Star Carol - John Rutter
Mid-Winter - Bob Chilcott
I Saw Three Ships - arr. John Rutter
(encore) This Christmastide - Donald Fraser



To Him We SingTo Him We Sing (1995)

No longer available

Charles K. Smith, conductor
Kenneth Bos, accompanist

If Thou But Suffer God to Guide Thee - arr. Jody Lindh
Let Nothing Ever Grieve Thee - Johannes Brahms
The Gift to be Simple - arr. Dale Wood
Be Unto Me, O Lord - William Byrd
I Will Not Leave You Comfortless - William Byrd
The Last Words of David - Randall Thompson
Sheep Fast Asleep - Chugoro Torii
Carol ("Wind in the Willows") - Frank DeWald
The Wexford Carol - arr. Douglas E. Wagner
The Snow - Edward Elgar
Ave Maria (Angelus Domini) - Franz Biebl
To Him We Sing - arr. Robert Young
Lone Wild Bird - arr. Frank K. DeWald
I Got Me Flowers - Daniel Burton
Hallelujah Chorus from Mount of Olives - Ludwig van Beethoven
Jerusalem the Golden - Alexander Ewing
Dan-u-el - Kirke Mechem
O Saviour of the World - Harold Moore



He Has the PowerHe Has the Power (1992)

Charles K. Smith, conductor
Kenneth Bos, accompanist

Holy God, We Praise Your Name - arr, John Ferguson
Not For Tongues of Heaven's Angels - Roy Hopp
Thou Who Wast God - arr. Katherine K. Davis
Lift Thine Eyes (from Elijah) - Felix Mendelssohn
He Watching Over Israel (from Elijah) - Felix Mendelssohn
Ave Verum Corpus - William Byrd
Like as a Hart - Herbert Howells
Passacaglia (from The Falcon) - John Rutter
Sanctus et Benedictus (from African Mass) - Norman Luboff
O Come, O Come Emmanuel - arr. Parker/Shaw
La Virgen Lava Panales - Josquin Nin-Culmell
Fum, Fum, Fum - Josquin Nin-Culmell
Still, Still, Still - arr. Norman Luboff
Just As I Am - arr. Alice Parker
Just A Closer Walk With Thee - arr. Ed Lojeski
Shenandoah - arr. James Erb
Down in the Valley - arr. George Mead
Witness - arr. Jack Halloran
Precious Lord, Take My Hand - arr. Roy Ringwold
He Has the Power - Leon Roberts



Salvation Is CreatedSalvation Is Created (1989)

Anton Armstrong, conductor
Kenneth Bos, accompanist

With a Voice of Singing - Kenneth Jennings
The Great Commandment - Ralph M. Johnson
Come, Thou Fount of Every Blessing - traditional hymn
Beautiful Savior - arr. F. Melius Christiansen
This Christmastide - Donald Fraser
Away In a Manger - arr. Bradley Ellingboe
Salvation Is Created - Paul Tschesnokov
Tomorrow Shall Be My Dancing Day - John Gardiner
Hombe (Kenyan song) - arr. L. Ekweueme
Go Where I Send Thee - arr. Andre' Thomas
All You Works of the Lord - Kenneth Jennings
God Is Seen - arr. Alice Parker
There is a Balm in Gilead - arr. William Dawson
Take My Hand, Precious Lord - Thomas A. Dorsey, arr. Ed Lojeski
This Joyful Eastertide - harm. Dale Grotehuis
Spirit of God, Who Dwells Within My Heart - Frederick C. Atkinson
Haleluya! Pelo Tsa Rona (South African) - traditional South African
Plenty Good Room - arr. Kirby Shaw



I Believe in GodI Believe in God (1986)

Anton Armstrong, conductor
Kenneth Bos, accompanist

When in Our Music God is Glorified - Charles V. Stanford
For the Beauty of the Earth - John Rutter
Jehovah is My Light - (Psalm 27) - English, 1826
By the Sea of Crystal - John Vanderhoven
Ding Dong! Merrily on High - French carol arr. Carolyn Jennings
Snow Had Fallen; Christ was Born - Stephen Paulus
Nunc Dimittis - Alexander Gretchaninof
Evening Meal - Ralph M. Johnson
Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied - J. S. Bach
When I Survey the Wondrous Cross - Lowell Mason arr. Gilbert Martin
Yom Seh Le-Yisrael - arr. Dudley Cohen
Three American Hymns - arr. Michael Richardson
The Morning Trumpet
Poor Wayfarin' Stranger
Promised Land
Keep Your Lamps - arr. Andre' Thomas
Credo (I Believe in God) from Gospel Mass - Robert Ray


In the Presence of His People (1988)

Calvin Alumni Choir and St. Cecelia Youth Chorale
Available from CRC Publications:
2850 Kalamazoo SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49510; (616) 241-0727

Comfort, Comfort Now My People
Arise, Shine; For Your Light Has Come
Rejoice in the Lord Always
Praise the Lord
The Lord's Prayer
Seek Ye First
The People Who Walked in Darkness
Song of Simeon
Here from All Nations
Alleluia-Alabare'!
In the Presence of Your People
I Will Exalt My God, My King-Te Exaltare'
The Lord's My Shepherd
As Moses Raised the Serpent Up
I am the Holy Vine
The Lord Bless You and Keep You
Lift Up Your Heads, O Gates