Marjorie Lindner Gunnoe

Marjorie Lindner Gunnoe


NIMH Research Training Grant in Primary Prevention, Arizona State University
     Post-doctoral training, 1993-1994

The University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA
     Ph.D., Psychology, 1993; M.A., Psychology, 1990
     Specialties: Developmental & Quantitative

Hope College, Holland, MI
     B.A., Psychology, 1987


Professor Gunnoe is a Developmental Psychologist. She teaches Introduction to Psychology (151), Lifespan Development (201), Youth Faith Formation (202), and Children at Risk (270). In Psyc 270, students gain field experience working with preschoolers at Kent County Head Start.

Profs. Gunnoe and Helder were (jointly) awarded the Community-Based Teaching Award for their long-standing collaboration with Head Start. State.Stats named Professor Gunnoe one of the top 25 Psychology Professors in Michigan.

Prior to coming to Calvin in 1996, Gunnoe worked at Child Trends, Inc. in Washington DC and served as a member of the design team for the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (97 cohort) conducted by the U.S. Department of Labor.

Research and scholarship

Professor Gunnoe is best known for her research on spanking which has drawn international media attention and was instrumental in Parliamentary proceedings in Canada and Israel when these countries were debating their corporal punishment laws.

Other interests include 1). the integration of faith and science and 2.) the relationship between authority and family functioning in diverse family contexts (e.g., international adoption, divorce/remarriage, hierarchical vs. egalitarian marriages).

Check out Professor Gunnoe's recently published book, The Person in Psychology and Christianity: A Faith-Based Critique of Five Theories of Social Development. Listen to an interview with the author.

Read about Dr. Gunnoe's research on associations between parenting style and physical discipline.


Gunnoe, M.L. (2022). The Person in Psychology and Christianity: A Faith-Based Critique of Five Theories of Social Development. Intervarsity Press.

Gunnoe, M.L. & Helder, E.J. (In press). Co-sleeping, regressive parenting, and onset of punishment as predictors of child adjustment five years after international adoption. Adoption Quarterly.

Larzelere, R.E., Gunnoe, M.L., Roberts, M.W., Lin, H., & Ferguson, C.J. (2020). Causal Evidence for Exclusively Positive Parenting and for Timeout: Rejoinder to Holden, Grogan-Kaylor, Durrant, and Gershoff (2017). Marriage and Family Review.

Larzelere, R.E., Gunnoe, M.L., & Ferguson, C.J. (2018). Improving causal inferences in meta-analyses of longitudinal studies: Spanking as an illustration. Child Development, 89(6), pp. 2038-2050.

Gorter, B.A., Helder, E.J., Oh, Y.I, & Gunnoe, M.L. (2017). Are disinhibited social behaviors among internationally adopted children mediated by attachment environment or by children’s difficulties with inhibitory control? Adoption Quarterly.

Helder, E.J., Brooker, B., Kapitula, L.R., Goalen, B. & Gunnoe, M.L. (2016). Predictors and correlates of inattentive/overactive behaviors in internationally adopted children, Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 5(4), pp. 237-251.

Jensen, R.J., Helder, E.M., & Gunnoe, M.L. (2016). Attachment disturbances delay language acquisition in internationally adopted children. Adoption Quarterly, 19 (3), 210 – 223. DOI: 10.1080/10926755.2016.1201709

Helder, E.J., Mulder, E., & Gunnoe, M.L. (2014). A longitudinal investigation of children adopted internationally at school age. Child Neuropsychology, 22 (1), 39-64.

Gunnoe, M.L. (2013). Associations between parenting style, physical discipline, and adjustment in adolescent reports. Psychological Reports, 112(3), 933-975.

Gunnoe M.L., Hetherington, E.M., & Reiss, D. (2006). The differential impact of fathers’ authoritarian parenting on early adolescent adjustment in conservative Protestant vs. other families. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(4), 589-596.

Gunnoe, M.L. (2003). Two models of Christian marriage: Scripture, social science, and the question of hierarchy vs. partnership. In S.W. VanderStoep (Ed.) Science of the Soul: Christian Perspectives on Psychological Research (pp. 269-302). Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Gunnoe, M.L., & Moore, K.A.  (2002). Predictors of religiosity in young adulthood: A longitudinal study of the National Survey of Children. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 41(4), 613-622.

Gunnoe, M.L., & Braver, S.L. (2001). The effects of joint legal custody on mothers, fathers, and children controlling for factors that predispose a sole maternal vs. joint legal award. Law and Human Behavior, 25 (1), 29-47.

Gunnoe, M.L., & Mariner, C.L. (1997). Toward a developmental/contextual model of the effects of parental spanking on children's aggression. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 151(8), 768-775.

Hetherington, E.M. and Clingempeel, W.G. in collaboration with (alphabetically…) Anderson, E.R., Deal, J.E., Hagan, M.S., Hollier, E.A., and Lindner, M.S. (1992). Coping with Marital Transitions: A Family Systems Perspective, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 58/59.

Professional services

Parenting: A Journal of Science and Practice (Editorial board)

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