Marjorie Lindner Gunnoe

Marjorie Lindner Gunnoe


The University of Virginia, Ph.D. (1993).
The University of Virginia, M.A. (1990).
Hope College, B.A. (1987)


Professor Gunnoe teaches Lifespan Development (201), Youth Faith Formation (202), and Child Development (208). Through an 18-year partnership with Kent County Head Start, students in her Psyc 208 course gain field experience working with preschoolers already by their second course in the major.

Check out Professor Gunnoe's recently published book, The Person in Psychology and Christianity: A Faith-Based Critique of Five Theories of Social Development. Listen to an interview with the author.

Professor Gunnoe was recently named one of the top 25 Psychology Professors in Michigan.

Read about Dr. Gunnoe's research on associations between parenting style and physical discipline.

Academic interests

Professor Gunnoe is best known for her research on spanking which has drawn international media attention and was instrumental in Parliamentary proceedings in Canada and Israel when these countries were debating their corporal punishment laws. Other research interests include religiosity and family functioning, international adoption, and divorce and remarriage. She is also very interested in the compatibilities and tensions between science and theology and is writing a book comparing the depictions of personhood found in scripture and developmental
psychology. Previously, she has compared hierarchical vs. egalitarian marriages from the standpoint of scripture and social science.

Prior to coming to Calvin in 1996, Gunnoe worked at Child Trends, Inc. in Washington DC and served as a member of the design team for the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (97 cohort) conducted by the U.S. Department of Labor. As a post-doctoral fellow in the Program for Prevention Research at Arizona State University she assisted in the design, development and delivery of an intervention program for recently divorced noncustodial fathers.

Research and scholarship


Larzelere, R.E., Gunnoe, M.L., Roberts, M.W., Lin, H., & Ferguson, C.J. (2020). Causal Evidence for Exclusively Positive Parenting and for Timeout: Rejoinder to Holden, Grogan-Kaylor, Durrant, and Gershoff (2017). Marriage and Family Review.

Larzelere, R.E., Gunnoe, M.L., Ferguson, C.J., & Roberts, M.W. (2019). The insufficiency of the evidence used to categorically oppose spanking and its implications for families and psychological science: Comment on Gershoff et al. (2018). American Psychologist, 74.

Larzelere, R.E., Gunnoe, M.L., & Ferguson, C.J. (2018). Improving causal inferences in meta-analyses of longitudinal studies: Spanking as an illustration. Child Development, 89(6), pp. 2038-2050.

Gorter, B.A., Helder, E.J., Oh, Y.I, Gunnoe, M.L. (2017). Are disinhibited social behaviors among internationally adopted children mediated by attachment environment or by children’s difficulties with inhibitory control? Adoption Quarterly.

Gorter, B.A., Helder, E.J., Oh, Y.I, Gunnoe, M.L. (In press). Are disinhibited social behaviors among internationally adopted children mediated by attachment environment or by children’s difficulties with inhibitory control? Adoption Quarterly.

Larzelere, R.E., Gunnoe, M.L., Roberts, M.W. & Ferguson, C.J. (2017). Children and parents deserve better parental discipline research: Critiquing the evidence for exclusively “positive” parenting. Marriage & Family Review. DOI: 10.1080/01494929.2016.1145613

Helder, E.J., Brooker, B., Kapitula, L.R., Goalen, B. & Gunnoe, M.L. (2016). Predictors and correlates of inattentive/overactive behaviors in internationally adopted children, Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 5(4), pp. 237-251.

Jensen, R.J., Helder, E.M., & Gunnoe, M.L. (2016). Attachment disturbances delay language acquisition in internationally adopted children. Adoption Quarterly, 19 (3), 210 – 223. DOI: 10.1080/10926755.2016.1201709

Helder, E.J., Mulder, E., & Gunnoe, M.L. (2014). A longitudinal investigation of children adopted internationally at school age. Child Neuropsychology, 22 (1), 39-64.

Gunnoe, M.L. (2013). Associations between parenting style, physical discipline, and adjustment in adolescent reports. Psychological Reports, 112(3), 933-975.

Gunnoe M.L., Hetherington, E.M., & Reiss, D. (2006). The differential impact of fathers’ authoritarian parenting on early adolescent adjustment in conservative Protestant vs. other families. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(4), 589-596.

Gunnoe, M.L., & Moore, K.A.  (2002). Predictors of religiosity in young adulthood: A longitudinal study of the National Survey of Children. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 41(4), 613-622.

Gunnoe, M.L., & Braver, S.L. (2001). The effects of joint legal custody on mothers, fathers, and children controlling for factors that predispose a sole maternal vs. joint legal award. Law and Human Behavior, 25 (1), 29-47.

Gunnoe, M.L., & Mariner, C.L. (1997). Toward a developmental/contextual model of the effects of parental spanking on children's aggression. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 151(8), 768-775.

Professional services

Parenting: A Journal of Science and Practice (Editorial board)

Calvin College Institutional Review Board

Psi Chi/Midwest Psychological Association faculty reviewer of student proposals

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